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of Sir Ernest Shackleton's Trans-Antarctic Expedition
1 Endurance, the expedition ship, departs
26 After stopping for supplies, the Endurance
departs from Buenos Aires.
5 Endurance arrives at the whaling
station of Grytviken, South Georgia Island, the last outpost
of civilization encountered en route to Antarctica.
5 Endurance departs the Grytviken
7 Endurance first encounters pack
18 Endurance becomes surrounded
by pack ice. Immobilized, it begins drifting in the ice.
21 Endurance drifts to its furthest
south point, 76°58'S.
27 The ship is severely damaged by ice.
Shackleton gives the order to abandon ship.
28 Shackleton orders each of the twenty-seven
men to dump all but two pounds of personal possessions.
Exceptions are made for photographer Frank Hurley's 35mm
motion-picture footage and photographs, as well as meteorologist
Leonard Hussey's banjo.
1 Shackleton establishes a camp on an
ice floe, dubbed Ocean Camp.
8 Hurley dives into the flooded ship to
recover the precious glass plates for his photographs. With
Shackleton, he chooses 120 photographs to keep. They then
destroyed the remaining 400 or so, so Hurley isn't tempted
to risk his life to return for them later.
21 Endurance sinks at 68°38.5'S,
29 After a failed attempt to march across
ice to the safety of land, Shackleton establishes "Patience
Camp" on an ice floe. The men hope to drift north to
9 Shackleton orders the lifeboatsthe
Dudley Docker, Stancomb Wills, and the
James Cairdto be launched. The boats are named
for the expedition's main patrons.
16 The three boats land on Elephant Island,
a remote, uninhabited island far from shipping lanes. This
is the first time that the men have stood on solid ground
in 497 days.
24 Shackleton decides to sail the James
Caird to South Georgia Island, where a whaling station
is located, to get help. He brings Captain Frank Worsley,
Second Officer Tom Crean, carpenter Chippy McNeish, and
seamen Tim McCarthy and John Vincent.
10 The James Caird arrives on the
uninhabited south coast of South Georgia Island.
19 Shackleton, Worsley, and Crean begin
their trek across the island's unexplored and largely unknown
interior to get help at the whaling station on the north
20 Shackleton and his men arrive at Stromness
whaling station. Worsley sails to the south coast to pick
up the three men left behind.
23 Shackleton borrows a ship, Southern
Sky, and sails to Elephant Island to rescue his men.
The pack ice prevents passage and the ship returns. Two
subsequent rescue attempts, aboard the Instituto Pesca
No. 1 in June and the Emma in July, are also
stopped by pack ice.
25 Shackleton departs on the Yelcho.
30 Shackleton rescues the twenty-two men on Elephant
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